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The Kenya-Ethiopia Defence Pact: Has Somalia become a pawn?

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The Kenya-Ethiopia Defence Pact: Has Somalia become a pawn?

It has been 60 years since the Kenya-Ethiopia Defence Pact was signed. Although ostensibly formed by the two countries to protect and come to each other’s aid if either were attacked, at the heart of the treaty was, and still remains, Somalia – their civil-war-troubled neighbour. Wanjohi Kabukuru analyses its impact and relevance six decades on.

The two men who shepherded the Kenya-Ethiopia Defence Pact in were Ethiopia’s Emperor Haile Selassie and Kenya’s founding father, Mzee Jomo Kenyatta, leading Pan-Africanists and bosom buddies. But their relationship goes back in time.

It is an open secret in Addis Ababa that Selassie supported Kenya’s Mau Mau liberation struggle against British colonial rule and surreptitiously supported the Kenyatta family.

The untold history of how hundreds of Mau Mau fighters were assimilated in Ethiopia still evokes emotions and debate in Kenya. The Ethiopian foreign affairs ministry acknowledges all this and notes that Ethiopia on the other hand had battled the Italian occupation forces through the use of Kenyan territory and secured medical support and military aid.

And the principle of reciprocity between the two nations has never wavered 60 years later.

In the 60s both Ethiopia and Kenya had come to appreciate Somalia’s large military and its extensive support and armament from the USSR due to its Cold War allegiance to the Soviets. What scared Nairobi and Addis Ababa were the territorial ambitions that Somalia harboured, which meant claiming parts of Kenya and Ethiopia.

The core of the Kenya-Ethiopia Defence Pact, which has been renewed consistently over the years, is significantly based on a united response should Somalia attack either of them.

Even though the economic dynamics, political realities and security challenges have changed with time, the heart of this special pact has always been aimed at checking what has come to be known as “Somalia’s irredentism”.

Between 1963 and 1968 the newly independent Kenyan state was faced by a secessionist insurgency of ethnic Somalis living within Kenya who wanted to be identified with the “greater Somalia” ideal. Kenya maintained that the insurgents were being supported by Mogadishu, a claim the Somali government denied.

But even though Mogadishu denied the logistical support for the secession fight, its radio propaganda broadcast support of the “Pan-Somali” nation undermined these denials.

Kenya’s response to the secessionist claims and guerilla war was the ruthless and traumatic template borrowed from the British offensive against the Kenyan Mau Mau liberation struggle.

Kenyan securocrats talked down the secession demands, terming  the insurgency a “Shifta [the Somali word for bandit] War”, demoting the entire border row to a fight against banditry.

The genesis and wake-up call
Even though Mogadishu denied that it was arming the “Shifta”, it was ironic that in 1967 Somalia’s prime minister, Mohammed Egal, signed a ceasefire agreement with Kenyatta. This saw Kenya remaining within the colonial boundaries. It was a severe blow to the secessionist demands.According to declassified files the ceasefire put on hold Kenya’s plans for a full-scale war with Somalia, even though defence officials openly admitted that they had limited military capabilities.

The genesis of the conflict goes back to colonialism and the intrigues that prevailed over all of Africa’s border demarcations. The Anglo-Italian Boundary Commission agreed to the Treaty of London of 25 July 1924, to demarcate the boundary between the Protectorate of Kenya and Italian Somaliland.  

At the dawn of Kenya’s independence, the Somalis living in Kenya were unanimous that they wanted to be part of the greater Somalia, and had expressed their views to the colonial British government.

The British never honoured the wishes of the Somalis as the independence negotiations got underway. And the succeeding post-independence Kenyan governments have made little effort to develop this region, retaining its brand as “bandit-prone”. Ethiopia on the other hand had its Ogaden region being claimed by Somalia. As early as 1954, Somalia and Ethiopia were already hostile neighbours engaged in territorial skirmishes. To Mogadishu, the Anglo-Ethiopian Treaty of 1954 was not binding and they saw it as nothing more than trickery, denying Somalis in Ethiopia their rights of self-determination. A fully-fledged Ethiopia-Somalia border conflict, the 1977-78 Ogaden War, ensued with an estimated death toll of over 4,000 people.

The then Somali leader Gen. Mohamed Siad Barre had sensed weaknesses within the Ethiopian government, then under Col. Mengistu Hailemariam, and decided to exploit the opportunity by assaulting the Ogaden region in the undying “greater Somalia” quest. It is during this war that the intensity of international geopolitics played out. Between 1962 and 1977 the Soviets had advanced to Somalia military aid worth $87m, which included tanks, military advisers, aircraft, armoured personnel carriers, torpedoes, a naval fleet and missile defence system.

During the initial stages of the conflict the Soviet government supported both sides. Ultimately though, Mengistu’s Marxist policies won over the Soviets, and they abandoned Barre.

The US had been Ethiopia’s main ally, seeking to have access over the Indian Ocean and to checkmate events in the volatile Middle East.

Just as it lost the “Shifta War”, Somalia lost the Ogaden War too. These two losses greatly undermined the “greater Somalia” agenda and opened the country to international manipulation.
Somalia’s strong expansionist tendencies, as revealed by the Ogaden War, exposed intricate continental African geopolitical interests at play.

International manipulations
For example, Egypt’s support for Somalia was an age-old strategy by Cairo to protect its interests over the Nile River, whose main tributary the Blue Nile is in Ethiopia. During the Ogaden War Egypt’s military aid to Somalia amounted to $30 million.

Barre ruled Somalia with strong-arm tactics. He was overthrown in 1991 by a cluster of clan lords whose support, though unconfirmed, has largely been viewed as emanating from Kenya and Ethiopia. Barre went into exile in Nigeria, dying in 1995.

Economically, Kenya, and Djibouti benefitted immensely with Somalia’s collapse. The use of the Djibouti and Mombasa ports prevailed at the expense of Somalia’s large coastline.

Unlike many other nations, Somalia’s political power structure spiralled into a vacuum and paved the way for clan lords to emerge. The centralised government’s system collapsed. This fall of the leadership structure helped foster what would become the world’s biggest headache, as piracy and radicalism found a haven in Somalia. Seeking to turn the tide, the US’s Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), then involved in the “War on Terror”, was keen to keep Islamic radicalism at bay and sought to take advantage of the situation by funding warlords in Somalia through its station chief in Nairobi.

US-backed warlords
The 1998 bombing of the US embassies in Tanzania and Kenya highlighted active Al Qaeda cells in the fragmented Somalia, supporting sleepers in Kenya, Tanzania, Comoros and Sudan.
In 2004 the international community came up with the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) after discussions in Addis Ababa, Djibouti and Nairobi. Though supported by the international community, the TFG lacked the all-important on-the-ground support.

By 2005, a new grouping to counter the TFG was formed: the Islamic Courts Union (ICU). The ICU had achieved what the US-backed warlords and TFG could not by establishing a centralised government structure. This was short-lived as the ICU’s agenda of an Islamic caliphate scared the regional governments and the US and EU in particular.

Global geo-politics, with the influence of the US, saw the ICU being branded as a radical group. This paved the way for the Ethiopian military invasion of 2006.

Even though the US had backed the Ethiopian invasion, Ethiopia was also invading Somalia for its own ends. One of them was routing out the ICU, said to be Eritrea’s proxy, and sympathetic to the rebel groups operating from Somalia with the “greater Somalia” agenda.

Ethiopian troops’ incursion into Somalia was laying the foundation for a fully-fledged African Union Peacekeeping Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) in 2007. AMISOM was building on the 2005 regional bloc Intergovernmental Authority on Development Peace Support Mission to Somalia. In late 2011, the United Nations Security Council slammed Eritrea for “funding and arming terrorist groups” in the region. Both Ethiopia and Kenya had for some time accused Eritrea of financing Al-Shabaab.

The Ethiopian occupation of Somalia brought down the ICU, which was split into two. Moderate elements of the ICU abandoned radicalism and joined the TFG while extremists founded Al-Shabaab. In less than a decade Al-Shabaab has transformed itself to become more than a regional militant organisation.

In 2012 the TFG’s mandate came to an end and the international community saw to it that a new government led by President Mohamud Hassan picks up from the gains made by the TFG.

Hassan’s election and the stability of Somalia as it is currently constituted have been in large measure due to AMISOM, which has also brought in its own dynamics.

Uganda’s People’s Defence Force (UPDF) is the largest contingent in AMISOM, contributing some 6,223 troops of AMISOM’s 22,623. Burundi comes second with 4,395 soldiers, followed by Ethiopia’s contribution of 4,395 troops and Kenya’s 3,664 respectively. The remaining 1,850 troops are shared between Djibouti and Sierra Leone respectively. Kenyan troops were not in the original AMISOM. However, after a series of attacks on Kenyan soil by Al-Shabaab, the Kenyan military made an incursion into Somalia and bulldozed the AU and the UN into being included in AMISOM even after protestations by the US. Nairobi succeeded. Neither Kenya nor Ethiopia have hidden their preferences on Somalian affairs. Kenya openly supports and designed the quasi-independent Jubaland administration in Somalia’s south, which acts as a buffer to its border with Somalia.

Ethiopia’s intentions are concordant to Kenya’s on Somaliland, which is a self-declared independent state. The Hassan-led Somalia’s federal government has little say on these two states.

The geo-politics, therefore, do not end with Ethiopia and Kenya; and they show no signs of subsiding. In late 2012 the UN panel of experts was just about to release a report accusing Uganda and Rwanda of arming the M23 rebels in DR Congo. The response by Uganda’s President Yoweri Museveni was categorical and a lesson on international negotiations. Kampala threatened that it was going to withdraw all its troops from AMISOM. Knowing what was at stake, the UN was forced to cede its moral high ground and to edit the report in Uganda’s favour.

Looking back 60 years ago (since the Defence Pact came into being), Somalia’s expansionist agenda seems to have worked against it after all, leaving the Horn of Africa country badly wounded, with imminent calls for secession gaining traction within its federal states. All that the Pan-Somali agenda has achieved seems to have been in favour of its neighbours and to undermine Somalia’s own progress and identity. It is a heavy price for Mogadishu to pay and maybe it’s time for serious reflection.

Revisiting the 60-year-old pact
The busiest artery in the Kenyan capital, which hosts high human and vehicular traffic on any day, is Haile Selassie Avenue, named after Ethiopia’s Emperor. In Nairobi’s upmarket Kilimani suburb you will find Menelik Road and a raft of Ethiopian restaurants and Orthodox churches.

A short distance away from Kenya’s State House is the Ethiopian Embassy, testament to Kenya and Ethiopia’s deep connections stretching over six decades. In 1964, Kenyan founding father,

President Mzee Jomo Kenyatta, broke international protocols and insisted that Selassie would be the first international Head of State he would meet. Liberia’s William Tubman, the first international leader to arrive in the newly independent state, docked in Mombasa but was forced to cool his heels as Selassie was so honoured.

The man who was at the centre of all presidential protocol arrangements, Duncan Ndegwa, recalls this event anecdotally in his book, “Walking in Kenyatta Struggles”.

The long history of the Kenya-Ethiopia Defence Pact remains as relevant today as it was at its first signing 60 years ago. At the time of signing this treaty in 1964, the two nations viewed Somalia as a threat due to the Horn of Africa nation’s irredentist ambitions. The “Greater Somalia” quest, whereby Mogadishu had on several occasions laid claim to parts of northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia mainly inhabited by members of the Somali community, is what inspired this binding defence treaty.

The “Somali irredentist tendencies” is what has kept Nairobi and Addis Ababa glued together for generations. Fast-forward to 2015, and Somalia still lays claims to a large swathe of Kenya’s northern territory and southern Ethiopia’s territory.

Today Uhuru Kenyatta, Kenya’s leader and Hailemariam Desalegn, the Ethiopian prime minister, have the same close relationship as Kenyatta’s and Selassie’s and they too recently renewed the defence pact.

But in all this – and as argued by African political pundits – it is crystal clear that Somalia has become a pawn in hardball international politics and sadly, may remain so into the distant future. As such, the 60-year-old defence pact regarding its neighbours will remain in place for many years to come.

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Written by Wanjohi Kabukuru

Wanjohi is an award-winning international environmental investigative journalist, whose specialty covers environment, geo-politics, business, conservation and the Indian Ocean marine development. Over the last 17 years Mr. Kabukuru has written extensively on energy, marine science and environmental conservation. His articles have been published in top-notch publications as African Business, African Banker, Inter Press Service (IPS), New African, BBC Focus on Africa, Mail & Guardian (South Africa), Africa Renewal, 100Reporters, and Radio France International (RFI) among numerous other publications.

  • jb

    Greater Somalia is in the hearts of every true Somali and the youth whom are 70% of the population inside the country and diaspora will make it a reality.Kenya and Ethiopia will pay a heavy price for the massacres commited against our people in garrisa wajir and western Somalia

    • Safia Luul

      that is why both of them fear us they know it very well and keep destablising Somalia but we will teach them lesson in future if they ever mess with us we know both very well and their fears against us

    • BANTURace

      They will pay nothing…..up…up …up goes the wall. What u don’t get is somalia has no right to call itself a nation or strive for self determination….all ur is ARABIC ambassadors in AFRICA sheltering and ushering in an ARABIC way of life.

  • jb

    War is in our genes so prepare yourself when its comes your way

    • Agao

      I thought so jb! the actual problem is in the genes. somali race is one of the biggest ethnic group in Africa stratgetically placed in the northen east coast for prosperity. Somalia would have been the Dubai in Africa. But because of this gene I cant agree less. A somali will kill other somalis and like a true genetic rabid dog of war, he will blame kenya, us and ethiopia for it! where else on earth have you ever seen people of the same religion and tribe tearing themselves down like the proverbial kilkeny cats.? If you cant stop this war mentality you will be finished. Only tails will remain and tails cant fight.

      • wa Murugi

        Well noted, Agao. Whereas I would not fancy having Kenya cede the NFD to Somalia (or any of her territory to anyone else for that matter), truth is if Somalis just toned down and focused on re-building their nation quietly, their industriousness would, ceteris paribus, assure them of a far stronger economy than that of Kenya and/or Ethiopia. And at this point it would be way easier for a strong Somali to arm-twist the latter neighbours into giving up both the NFD and Ogaden for their “pan-Somali” nation agenda.
        Be as it may, this chest-thumping attitude of having ‘war in our genes’ is as outdated as it is myopic – pound for pound, a Ndorobo will give you a good fight as any Somali will, and any war-chanting fella in this context need to keep that in mind.

        • Wilo Abdulle

          Wa Murugi, you made a good point. We should continue our force for integrating and connecting Africa. Pan African should be on our focus. Unfortunately it is a fact that Kenya and Ethiopia disturbed the developemnt of Somalia. Even pan – somalia would benefit our neighbouring countries because in the end we should reach an interregional entity like Southern Africa. What benefits somalia also benefits both Kenya and Ethiopia. Let us focus on Pan-Africa more and leave and stop being short sighted.

          • BANTURace

            I hate coming across stupid black folks such as urself

          • A Njenga

            Yes a much easier way to cede territory is through dropping our borders altogether and allowing free movement of people and capital..there will be no need for Nationalism

      • Wilo Abdulle

        There is only one race and it is called human race. Let us stop spreading afrofobia and other forms of discrimination. there is no such Somalia race.

        • Warsan Shire

          There is no human race. We want our land back and we will get it back. For people have had a dream from the creation of their nation. With the American’s it was manifest destiny, with the Israelis its Zionism and with the Somali’s its greater Somalia. This dream will be realized wither it takes 10 yrs, 100 yrs, or 10,000 yrs.

      • BANTURace

        Zoomalian are proof of ethnic intergration failure.

    • BANTURace

      So is dying and starving and eating booklet rocks,

  • Moha

    Great article, I enjoyed reading.

  • Safia Luul

    why those two countries fear Somalia? they keep destablising Somalia because they know if Somalia becomes peaceful and develop both militarily and economically they would librate Ogaden and NFD for sure but let them keep in their foolish mind that Ogaden and NFD are Somali-lands and will be free or joined Somalia one day in future. peaceful Somalia is Ethiopia and Kenya threath they know it so they destablise us but will never succsseed we will punish them as we did in the past no Soviets and Cubans will free Ethiopia again so fear us cowards Ahmed Gurey and Siad barre are borning again time to shit your pants is coming and for Kenya hahahhah we know you so well

    • BANTURace

      My dear with all kindness just gently be quiete the only reason why we will never stop trying to destroy SOMALIANS, because they are ARABISED abysinians making way for an ARABIC alien culture to enter the continent. – sharia Law –

    • #KOT

      keep talking and time is ticking. 25 yeras and more Somalis live scattered all over the world. Do you think great grandchildren of somalis in Canada, or Australia or even Turkey will want to come and liberate that wilderness?

      • Warsan Shire

        As a child of the diaspora I can assure you will get our land back and we’ll make sure our children never forget.

    • TwoOwSix

      Safia. Insha Allah it will happen just like you said it

  • Wanjohi

    Thank you all for the comments. This is a critical conversation that needs to be stretched further with the eye focused on solutions and redefining the region afresh. The past 50+ years are awash with the good, the bad and the ugly. Question is not denying our past but how do we make our present and future as Horn of Africa nations better and accommodating for all?

    • Wilo Abdulle

      The ground for peace for all must be fair. The defence pack between Kenya and Ethiopia must be out if peace talk with Somalia must come. Somalia has al rights to its terrritory and obligation for its people.

      • Strawbee tati

        Wars have been fought,history written and borders drawn!…..stick to the borders…..even Latinos are found on both SIDES borders of Mexico and USA but Mexico cannot force to extend borders just because people of same ethnicity are in USA!…..please stop this none sense!…the final fall will be forever!

        • Wilo Abdulle

          I would not say your opinion is nonsense. The colonial borders were never ours. I have never supported war and it had never been intention encouraging war. If people from these countries want to negotiate and have peaceful dialogue to decide their borders or even removing borders and have open borders then there must be their own decisions on fair grounds.

    • Warsan Shire

      There will be no peace till Somalia gets all its land back and gets itself in order.

  • Abdirizak Hassan

    it shows luck of understanding and still in greedy African mind, the author of this articles clearly reminds me why i should appreciate Kenya’s contribution to my education but also whispered me why i will not find peace at home as long as this plan is in place. Somalia will come back on stage and will deliver its obligation as a nation. History is being taught every fight that we had Wayaane(the nickname of Ethiopians) and Kenya. I will not defend the mistakes committed by minor number of my people but the impact of somali people will come out, truly Somalia is not willing and will not be part of War with either Kenya or Ethiopia in near future, i am sure but future Somali generation are not even willing to send one single male soldier to Kenya because only our female soldiers can handle your shitty corrupted so called military. as long as a single somali person is suffering in this two countries i will not fall a sleep like any other Somali person, we are ready to give the wake up call to their oppressors. Somalia Ha noolato.

    • Strawbee tati

      Seems you haven’t yet learnt your lesson…..and at this rate forget anything called Somalia, It will henceforth be Puntland,Juba republic….bal bla bla e.t.c and eventually just Ethiopia,Kenya and Djibouti…..the wise listen….be warned!!!.

      • Warsan Shire

        LOL please take advantage of the current situation, but it won’t last forever. Because nothing lasts forever.

    • #KOT

      I heard there are more funds to be sent to Madobe administration soon after Uhuru deals with Raila in the next election once and for all. Jubaland and somaliland have 1 master Ethiopia and Kenya comes second. Ogaden region has oil and Wajir has gas.

  • Ali Elmi

    The writer of the article is trying to revive an eroded and practically
    dead pact with dubious agendas. No doubt that both Kenya and Ethiopia are geopolitically
    benefiting from a weaker Somalia. The writer is ignoring purposefully the
    enormous changes that took place in the past 60 years. The Tigre ruling elites
    in Ethiopia had a secessionist doctrine and were supported by Somalia in the seventies
    of the past century. There is an outstanding border dispute between Kenya and
    Ethiopia. Recently, Ethiopian army invaded Kenya – a move thought to prevent
    Kenya’s oil exploration near the border with Ethiopia (http://mgafrica.com/article/2015-05-19-ethiopian-forces-cross-into-kenya-risk-diplomatic-fall-out).
    Besides, Ethiopia denied airspace clearance to President Kenyatta’s airplane, a
    move that has triggered an official protest from Kenya’s side (http://www.ayyaantuu.net/its-ethiopia-kenya-now-breaks-silence-over-aborted-uhuru-trip/).
    Although Somalia is facing currently difficult situations, the country has all
    the potentials to stand to its feet again, where Kenya and Ethiopia are internally
    fragile and ethnically diverse – sadly, in our African context such conditions
    are conducive to instability and internal conflicts i.e. Kenya’s 2007 election
    violence. The writer’s view is in line with kikuyu’s intellectual thinking
    model and reflects the way they would like to see realities , but the Tigre
    elites have interest in tactical management of regional crises without having an strategically plan. What
    you call “Somali irredentist tendencies” and we call Great-Somalia is a fact
    waiting to happen either peacefully or otherwise.

  • Ali Elmi

    The writer of the article is trying to revive an eroded and practically
    dead pact with dubious agendas. No doubt that both Kenya and Ethiopia are geopolitically
    benefiting from a weaker Somalia. The writer is ignoring purposefully the
    enormous changes that took place in the past 60 years. The Tigre ruling elites
    in Ethiopia had a secessionist doctrine and were supported by Somalia in the
    seventies of the past century. There is an outstanding border dispute between
    Kenya and Ethiopia. Recently, Ethiopian army invaded Kenya – a move thought to
    prevent Kenya’s oil exploration near the border with Ethiopia (http://mgafrica.com/article/2015-05-19-ethiopian-forces-cross-into-kenya-risk-diplomatic-fall-out).
    Besides, Ethiopia denied airspace clearance to President Kenyatta’s airplane, a
    move that has triggered an official protest from Kenya’s side (http://www.ayyaantuu.net/its-ethiopia-kenya-now-breaks-silence-over-aborted-uhuru-trip/).
    Although Somalia is facing currently difficult situations, the country has all
    the potentials to stand to its feet again, where Kenya and Ethiopia are internally
    fragile and ethnically diverse – sadly, in our African context such conditions
    are conducive to instability and internal conflicts i.e. Kenya’s 2007 election
    violence. The writer’s view is in line with kikuyu’s intellectual thinking
    model and reflects the way they would like to see realities , but the Tigre
    elites have interest in tactical management of regional crises without having an strategically plan. What
    you call “Somali irredentist tendencies” and we call Great-Somalia is a fact
    waiting to happen either peacefully or otherwise.

    • BANTURace

      Ur just a retard, plain and simple. Somalia stable. Lol…SOMALIANS are a Mullato experiment between African and areas gone viscous lay and terribly wrong.

  • Ali Elmi

    The writer of the article is trying to revive an eroded and practically
    dead pact with dubious agendas. No doubt that both Kenya and Ethiopia are geopolitically
    benefiting from a weaker Somalia. The writer is ignoring purposefully the
    enormous changes that took place in the past 60 years. The Tigray ruling elites
    in Ethiopia had a secessionist doctrine and were supported by Somalia in the
    seventies of the past century. There is an outstanding border dispute between
    Kenya and Ethiopia. Recently, Ethiopian army invaded Kenya – a move thought to
    prevent Kenya’s oil exploration near the border with Ethiopia. Besides, Ethiopia denied airspace clearance to President Kenyatta’s airplane, a
    move that has triggered an official protest from Kenya’s side. Although Somalia is facing currently difficult situations, the country has all
    the potentials to stand to its feet again, where Kenya and Ethiopia are internally
    fragile and ethnically diverse – sadly, in our African context such conditions
    are conducive to instability and internal conflicts i.e. Kenya’s 2007 election
    violence. The writer’s view is in line with kikuyu’s intellectual thinking
    model and reflects the way they would like to see realities , but the Tigray elites have interest in tactical management of regional crises without having an strategically plan. What
    you call “Somali irredentist tendencies” and we call Great-Somalia is a fact
    waiting to happen either peacefully or otherwise.

  • Feisal Abdi

    somalia wasnt defeated they were overwhelmed by the cuban and russia forces and you forgot to tell us where was kenya at the time of that war no where to be seen they never even honoured there pact it proves that relation is illegal and perverted on distabalising somalia but look her in kenya we have already entered your parliament and writing laws

  • Feisal Abdi

    they took half of ethopia and the cowards ethopian left everything even there weapons and they were being killed running like girls there was even prooof of ethopia using cuban forces some were even captured

  • Bashir

    This is a spear against your Master -Somalis . Kenyan and Ethiopians served as only source of slaves for Somalis for centuries ,I am sorry to remind people of dark past Kenyans and Livestock were Somalis greatest foreign earning dating back to 14th century.Somalis sold as many Kenyan to Indians and Arabians as possible for exchange of goods and money -and If were not the British who somehow frustrated Somalia’s slave trade and land grabbing because Europeans had sophisticated Weapons and Airforce unlike Somalis animal keepers even though EUs have had their share of Somalis trouble. ,Kenyans Highlands would have been the second home to many Somalis-lucky you kenyans

    Somalis regrettably enslaved Ethiopians especially Oromos/Amharas-Galla madow in their Thousands and grabbed land as close to Adis ababa today and if it were not the Portuguese who frustrated the effort of Ahmed Gurey and Wiilwaal speediest grabbing of Ethiopians Highlands , Adis ababa would have been home for many Mosques and Somalis were converting them to Islam.

    Since Oromos/Amharas were non-Negros/non-African ,we used to assign Orommo slaves to simple tasks like cattle or camel herders because they were not African-Bantus.

    In conclusion Somalia’s thirst for land and slaves does not end .it is part of giving dirty jobs to those who deserve -Ethiopians and Kenyan Slaves .

    The Author of this article I guess was D+ plus student at high School because it seems he never read Their GHC(Geography ,History and Civics books) in kenya so well.

    GHC books of Kenya teaches student both in Primary and secondary school and I quote the GHC book “Somalis are fierce tribe” and Kenyan GHC books should be an extra lesson to Ethiopians who was dominated by their Fierce neighbor-Somalia
    and the agreement he writes about are not more than cowardice act.

    But I would propose Somalis have every right to protect Peace full Kenyan citizens who like Somalia as their role model to development -I will be there for Kenyans-

    Tigre came to power as result of Somalia’s support and hope Tigre will be there too for Somalis though they have every reason to worry about the unique horn African nation Somalis with high level of intellectual agility – take care All.

    • Bashir

      Kenyans Should not be misled by Ethiopians because Ethiopians are prone to Somalia’s wrath. USA gave Ethiopia twice the size of Military Aid to other African nation just to save Them .but Human resources are important than material resources- we counting on all those in Eithiopia and we will loot ha aha ha once we have stable and voted government soon In sha Allah

    • A Njenga

      I find it funny how the likes of Bashir talk shit when their country is …shit…focus that energy on transforming the Anus of the world into the model of prosperity it once was. And to my Kenyan brothers and sisters..we are very close to being like Somalia if we destroy ourselves from within like they did..learn from your neighbour’s failiures…I learnt of a very high ranking minister in Siad Barre’s government living in Dadaab refugee camp ..dont take peace for granted…dont heed the calls of career politicians.

  • leilalima5678

    Helpful writing – I was fascinated by the analysis – Does anyone know if my business would be able to obtain a blank a form form to use ?

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